Hey kids! Today we are going to learn how to add some details that were missing from the heads we created last time.

While the heads we made were good foundations, they were still missing some

of the things that make a 3d head more believeable: ears, eyelids, and the interior of their mouths.


The Ear

1. Use reference! The ear is complicated. The same roto technique from before will work equally well for this. Alternatively, steal the ear from another model you have created in the past; as long as it works! If the ear you are creating isn't structured the same way a human ear is, you should at least do some planning beforehand and sketch out the way you want the ear to look.


2. Start patch modeling the ear. Make a circle of polygons around the circumference, then fill in the hole.


3. Draw a line from the top of the ear to the bottom, following the topography of the ear. Draw another line next to it going from the side of the ear to the bottom. You are creating a "channel" of polygons.


4. Fill in the remainder of the ear as best you can, keeping in mind both the topology of the reference ear and maintaining quads. It's okay to add or take away geometry from the original poly loop you created at this point... whatever it takes to get the shape you need.


5. Okay, time to bring this flat ear into the third dimension. First, select the polys in the interior part of the ear. Extrude them and push them back to create depth. Do the same thing with the edges around the ear where the ear is not connected to the head.


6. With those same edges, duplicate them and scale them in to create the back side of the ear. Dupe the edges again and pull them in slightly (in towards the inside of the head). Dupe them and scale them out.

(rear view)


7. Now we come to the trickiest part of the operation: prepping the ear to be attached to the head. Because of the strange folds and twists in the geometry, this is really hard to do easily and cleanly... but there are a few tricks that will help it to go smoother. First, pick all of the points on the outside face of the ear.

Now, we are going to rotate them so that the ear is slanted out away from the head. To do this, we need to first give the points a rotation reference. I am going to use one of the forward edges of the ear.

Next, I am going to right click the proportional modeling button and pick a distance limit that keeps most of the outermost points unaffected. Next I need to rotate and translate the ear until the forward part of the ear is pretty much flush with where the side of the head is going to be.

8. Before we attach the ear to the head, we should do our final detailing. Using your reference, pull points, extrude faces and add/remove geometry as needed to get the inner part of the ear looking the way you want it. Check it in smoothed mode to see how it will look.


9. Time to attach our ear to the head. First, scale/rotate/translate the ear into position on the head. Next, delete polygons on the head to create a hole for the ear. The hole should be slightly bigger than the ear itself. Merge the ear mesh to the head mesh. Then use the Add/Edit Polys tool to bridge the gaps between the ear and the head. Don't worry about maintaining quads at this point.


10. Once it is all hooked up, spend some time cleaning up the geometry and trying to get quads. If there is absolutely no way to get all quads in your model, then hide the bad geo inside or behind the ear. Several triangles are better than polys with more than 4 sides. Then sit back and bask in the radiation of awesomeness coming off of your fantastic ear model.



The Eyes

1. Make sure the eye holes are shaped the way you want them before you begin… the character's eyes should look wide open, because they have no lids yet. Don't neglect the side view either. You can widen the eyes if you need to by moving the center of the object to the center of the eyeball and rotating the points of the lid.


2. There should also be some preliminary shaping for the tear duct, and the eyelids should follow the curve of the eyball exactly. Make sure they still do when smoothed. Make the outer eyeball opaque so that the eyelid skims along the outer eyeball rather than the inner.


3. Make sure that the center of your head mesh is in the center of the eyeball. Select the edges that will make up the upper eyelid, but don't select the edges closest to the corner of the eyes. Duplicate the edges and rotate them in global mode to curve them over the eye. Do this four times to create a curved mesh covering the eyeball.


4. Straighten out the points in the corners of the eyes. Select the points that make up the eyelid and Shrinkwrap them to the eyeball. Don't close the properties page. Smooth the mesh and tweak the amplitude of the Shrinkwrap so that the eyelids are offset from the eyeball.


5. Fill in the corners of the eyelids.


6. Repeat all of the above steps for the lower eyelid. This time, though, don't select the two edges on the inner side of the eyelid.


7. Create eye guck by filling in the corner of the eye and doing an extrude or two.


8. Select the edges of the eyelids and extrude them out to create eyelashes. Select the polys of the eyelashes and Extract (Delete) them from the main mesh.


9. Select the edges of the eyelids again and duplicate them, scaling them inwards this time to create the thickness of the eyelids. Now the edges are too curved, so select the edges one in from the edge of the eylids and harden them.

(Cross-section of the eyelid and eye)



The Mouth

1. Open the character’s mouth. First, move the center of the mesh to the pivot of the character's jaw. Select the point that make up the lower jaw and rotate them with Proportional Modeling turned on with Consider Neighborhood activated. Rotate the points so that the mouth opens. Spend a bit of time tweaking up the points so that they look natural.


2. Move the center of the mesh to the middle of the mouth, on the Y center line. Select the edges of the inner lips and extrude them out, translating and scaling them to create the inner lips. Continue to do so, creating a cavity for the mouth.

(View from inside head)


3. Get a poly torus, with Cross-Section Radius at 0.5 and U Subdivisions 24. Cut it in half three times. Size it to fit inside the bottom jaw.


4. Select the rear-most border edges of the gum piece and extrude them back a few times to extend the bottom gums backwards.


5. Select alternate faces on the tops of the gums and extrude them, scaling them in. Do the same for the remainder. We do it this way because if we extruded all of the faces at the same time, they would extrude off of the main gums piece in a single lump rather than in discrete chunks like we have here. Extrude all of these faces again, scale them down slightly and push them down to create tooth-holes.


6. Get a poly cube and extrude the top poly, pulling it up slightly. This will be our tooth. If you want to add more detail, go for it.


7. Smooth the tooth and place it in the gums mesh. Duplicate it and place the dupes in all the other holes.


8. Freeze all transforms on the gums mesh. Make it the parent of the teeth. Branch select the gums, duplicate it and scale it to -1 X. Branch select both gums and duplicate them -1 Y.


9. Create a poly cube and shape it into a tongue.


Victory! Our head is now finished. If you have any

questions or if you run into an emergency situation while using this tutorial, please let me

know here. Good luck!!


copyright © 2003 cameron widen. all rights reserved.